Ramachandra, TV and Subramanian, DK (1997) Industrial Energy Utilisation in Karnataka and Potential Savings. In: Energy Conversion and Management, 38 (6). pp. 563-599.
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Energy is essential for industrial production. Because of the past abundance of low-cost energy, historically, the rate of social progress among industrial societies has not been limited by energy availability. Energy cost has not been significant when compared with no energy use. Mechanisation of agriculture, increased use of electrical appliances in the domestic sector and rapid industrialisation to meet the demand of exponentially growing population have resulted in an energy crisis. The raised fossil fuel prices and the environmental factors playing the dominant role in implementation of large scale projects, such as hydro, thermal and nuclear, have aggravated the problem further. In this context, an integrated energy plan for a country seems essential for ecologically sound development of a region. An integrated plan includes strategies to: • improve the efficiencies of end use devices and/or conversion equipment in all sectors; • optimise energy sources (end use matching); • maximise the use of renewable resources; • balance the exploitation of biomass energy resources; and • discourage the use of depletable resources. Conservation through improvement of the efficiencies of end use devices is one of the most effective ways to provide immediate relief for the energy problem. This helps to maintain economic growth and social progress of a region. Environmental problems, resource depletion and growing demand of energy in the state/region make it increasingly imperative that we use energy as efficiently as possible, and planners should take note of this untapped resource. The potential for improved energy efficiency is great, and a substantial part of that potential could be realised in the course of events. The industrial sector constitutes a major consumer of commercial energy. Improvement of energy efficiency in the industrial sector would result in a slower rate of energy growth. A secure energy supply is the major concern of most industrialists. It is, thus, necessary to examine industrial energy use and the economy. The analyses of consumption patterns and the assessment of feasible energy conservation possibilities show that the potential for energy conservation in the industrial sector and in all sectors is substantial. The barriers identified to tap this potential are a lack of information on specific measures and options for achieving energy conservation, lack of capital for schemes involving technology upgrading and efficiency improvements, pricing policies which deviate from rational tariffs and the inadequacy of institutional arrangements for promoting energy conservation in different sectors of the economy. In this regard, research should be sponsored to develop system designs, cost and pricing policies, problems related to system interconnection with public utilities and an assessment of potential energy savings, and research into methods of matching energy resources to work requirements, rather than vice versa, for improved efficiency. It is essential for the planning machinery to foster the integrated approach in energy planning of a region. This paper discusses an attempt made by us to illustrate the industrial energy scene in Karnataka and reveals the possibilities of energy conservation. Analysis of the energy consumption data of Karnataka and India shows that the per capita consumption of energy is low (compared with 56 countries in the world), while for the industrial sector, energy per state domestic product (SDP comparable to GDP) is at least 10–20 times higher than that of industrialised countries. This implies inefficiency in energy utilisation. Detailed investigation of the industrial sector through analysis of the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)—industry wise and yearly for a seven-year period—reveals that about 27.72% of energy could be saved in the industrial sector. This, when quantified, accounts for savings of 1541 million kWh per year in Karnataka, which is equivalent to the power output of 300 MW (Mega Watts) electric power generating station (hydro/thermal).
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier.|
|Keywords:||Per capita energy consumption (PCCE);Gross domestic product (GDP);Energy intensity;Per capita GDP;Energy elasticity; Specific energy consumption (SEC);SEC ratios;Energy planning|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Biological Sciences > Centre for Ecological Sciences|
|Date Deposited:||18 Apr 2007|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 04:37|
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