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Effect of ring size in R-(+)-pulegone-mediated hepatotoxicity: Studies on the metabolism of R-(+)-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone and DL-camphorone in rats

Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V and Bhat, Vadiraja B and Madyastha, Madhava K (2001) Effect of ring size in R-(+)-pulegone-mediated hepatotoxicity: Studies on the metabolism of R-(+)-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone and DL-camphorone in rats. In: Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 29 (6). pp. 821-829.

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Abstract

R-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene ketone, is a potent hepatotoxin. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the reduction of the ring size in R-(+)-pulegone would affect its mode of metabolism and its hepatotoxic potential. Metabolic fate of R-(+)-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (I) and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (DL-camphorone; II) were examined in rats. Compounds I and II were administered orally (250 mg/kg of b.wt./day) to rats for 5 to 7 days. The following metabolites were isolated and identified from the urine of rats dosed with I: 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopent-2-enone (Ie), Z-4-methyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (Ib), E-4-methyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (Ia), 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (If), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (Ic), and E-4-methyl-2-(1-carboxyethylidene)-cyclopentanone (Id). Phenobarbital (PB)-induced rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH transformed compound I into metabolites, which were identified as Ia, Ib, Ic, Ie, and If. The following urinary metabolites were isolated and identified from compound II: 5-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (IIc), 5-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-cyclopentanone (IIg), Z-5-methyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (IIb), 5-methyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethyl)-cyclopentanone (IIf), E-5-methyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (IIa), E-5-methyl-2-(1-carboxyethylidene)-cyclopentanone (IId), and 5-methyl-2-(1-carboxyethyl)-cyclopentanone (IIe). PB-induced rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH were shown to transform compound II to IIa, IIb, and IIc. Studies carried out in vitro demonstrated that hydroxylation at the tertiary carbon atom or oxidation of the isopropylidene methyl groups in II can be specifically blocked through structural modifications as seen in compounds 2,2-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclopentanone (III) and 5-methyl-2-(1-ethyl-1-propylidene)-cyclopentanone (IV). Similar observation was also made when isopropylidene methyl groups in R-(+)-pulegone were replaced by ethyl groups. Intraperitoneal administration of a single dose (250 mg/kg) of I and II to rats did not elicit hepatotoxicity as judged by serum alanine aminotransaminase levels and liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activities.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics .
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
Date Deposited: 17 Oct 2007
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:40
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/12274

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