# Influence of Nd:Zn codoping in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate

Reddy, Babu JN and Kamath, Ganesh K and Vanishri, S and Bhat, HL and Elizabeth, Suja (2008) Influence of Nd:Zn codoping in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate. In: Journal of Chemical Physics, 128 (24). pp. 244709-1.

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## Abstract

Near-stoichiometric lithium niobate (SLN) crystals doped with up to 1.6 mol % Zn and codoped with various Nd concentrations in the melt (0.2, 0.5, 0.9, and 1.5 mol %) (Nd:Zn:SLN)are grown from 58.6 mol % $Li_2O$ using conventional Czochralski technique. Crystals are pulled at the rate of 0.35 mm/h with seed rotation at 9 rpm. Concentrations of Zn and Nd in the crystal are varied by adding appropriate amounts of ZnO and $Nd_2O_3$ to the starting composition. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystals are calculated by Rietveld refinement method using FULLPROFF software. Domain structure studies are carried out by chemical etching followed by microscopic examination. Dielectric studies reveal the existence of piezoelectric resonance at high frequencies. Enhancement in dielectric constant and $tan \delta$ in Nd doped samples has been attributed to the space charge polarization. Nd doped samples exhibit reduction in the relative permittivity after oxygen annealing. Transmission spectra of Nd:Zn:SLN crystals in the UV region exhibit blueshift in the cutoff wavelength. In Mid Infrared (MIR) region crystals doped with 1.6 mol % Zn have shift in the OH absorption peak from 2873 to 2833 nm. Judd–Ofelt analysis carried out on the absorption spectra of codoped crystal yields the lifetime of $104 \mu$ s for the metastable state $^4F_{3/2}$. The branching ratio for the electronic transition from $^4F_{3/2}$ to $^4I_{11/2}$ is high compared to that for $^4F_{3/2}$ to $^4I_{13/2}$, indicating a higher emission cross section for the former transition. Laser damage threshold evaluated using 532 nm, 5 ns pulsed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, shows an increase by two orders of magnitude for crystals doped with 1.6 mol % Zn. Photorefractive damage threshold for these crystals shows an enhancement of four orders of magnitude due to increase in the photoconductivity.

Item Type: Journal Article Copyright of this article belongs to American Institute of Physics. Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics 04 Aug 2008 19 Sep 2010 04:48 http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/15417