# X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigations on cubic $BaTiO_3$, $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_3$ and $Ba_{0.9}Nd_{0.1}TiO_3$ systems

Jena, Hrudananda and Mittal, VK and Bera, Santanu and Narasimhan, SV and Kutty, Govindan KV and Kutty, TRN (2008) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigations on cubic $BaTiO_3$, $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_3$ and $Ba_{0.9}Nd_{0.1}TiO_3$ systems. In: Applied Surface Science, 254 (21). pp. 7074-7079.

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## Abstract

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies were carried out on wet-chemically synthesized cubic $BaTiO_3$, $Ba_{0.9}Nd_{0.1}TiO_3$ and $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_{3-\delta}$ powders. The compounds were prepared by hydrothermal and gel to crystallite conversion technique; and phases formed readily at 420 K. The phase purity of the powders was confirmed from X-ray diffractometry. Chemical state and chemical environment of the constituent elements in the compositions were examined by XPS. $Ba^{2+}$ was found to exist in two different chemical environments in these titanates. The Ti $2p_{3/2}$ photoelectron peak in $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_{3-\delta}$ was found to be broadened after $Fe^{3+}$ substitution. Any resolvable broadening was not observed distinctly in the Ti 2p peak for $Ba_{0.9}Nd_{0.1}TiO_3$, unsintered $BaTiO_3$ and $BaTiO_3$ annealed in hydrogen $(8\% H_2 + Ar)$ at 1000 K. The prevalence of mixed-valent titanium and iron in $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_{3-\delta}$ composition was evident from the XPS results and was further supported by the enhanced electrical conductivity at 298-550 K for $BaTi_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_{3-\delta}$ in comparison to $BaTiO_3$ and $Ba_{0.9}Nd_{0.1}TiO_3$. Hydroxyl incorporation was facilitated by substituting $Nd^{3+}$ in Ba-sublattice. The presence of hydroxyls was observed from the broadening of the O 1s peak in XPS studies of the compounds.

Item Type: Journal Article Publisher Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy;X-ray diffractometry;cubic BaTiO3. Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre 03 Nov 2008 06:03 19 Sep 2010 04:51 http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/16185