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Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

Oommen, C and Jain, SR (1999) Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer. In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 67 (3). pp. 253-281.

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Abstract

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate Oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science B.V.
Keywords: Ammonium nitrate;Solid composite propellants;Clean burning propellants;Phase modification;Explosives;Burning rate
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Aerospace Engineering (Formerly, Aeronautical Engineering)
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2009 10:31
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:58
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/17894

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