Kutty, TRN and Murugaraj, P (1987) Phase relations and dielectric properties of BaTi03 ceramics heavily substituted with neodymium. In: Journal of Materials Science, 22 (10). pp. 3652-3664.
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Investigations on the phase relations and dielectric properties of (1 -x)BaTiO3 + xNd2/3TiO 3 (BNT) ceramics sintered in air below 1650 K have been carried out. X-ray powder diffraction studies indicate apparent phase singularity for compositions with x < 0.3. Nd2Ti207 is detected at higher neodymium concentrations. The unit cell parameter changes continuously with neodymium content, and BaTiO3 is completely cubic at room temperature with x -- 0.0525, whereas electron diffraction studies indicate that the air-sintered BNT ceramics with x > 0.08 contain additional phases that are partly amorphous even to an electron beam. SEM observations reveal that BaTiO3 grains are mostly covered by a molten intergranular phase, and show the presence of randomly distributed Nd2Ti207 grains. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows the Ba-Nd-Ti ternary composition of the intergranular phase. Differential thermal analysis studies support the formation of a partial melt involving dissolution-precipitation of boundary layers of BaTiO3 grains. These complex phase relations are accounted for in terms of the phase instability of BaTiO3 with large cation-vacancy concentration as a result of heavy Nd 3+ substitution. The absence of structural intergrowth in (1 - x)BaTiO3 + xNd2/3TiO3 under oxidative conditions leads to a separation of phases wherein the new phases undergo melting and remain X-ray amorphous. BNT ceramics with 0.1 < x < 0.3 have ~eff >~ 104 with tan 6 < 0.1 and nearly flat temperature capacitance characteristics. The grain-size dependence of ee,, variations of ~eff and tan 6 with the measuring frequency, the non-ohmic resistivities, and the non-linear leakage currents at higher field-strengths which are accompanied by the decrease in eeff and rise in tan 3, are explained on the basis of an intergranular (internal boundary layer) dielectric characteristic of these ceramics.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copy right of this article belongs to Springer.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre|
|Date Deposited:||12 Jan 2010 09:03|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:32|
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