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Timing the Emergence of Resistance to Anti-HIV Drugs with Large Genetic Barriers

Arora, Pankhuri and Dixit, Narendra M (2009) Timing the Emergence of Resistance to Anti-HIV Drugs with Large Genetic Barriers. In: Plos Computational Biology, 5 (3). pp. 1-10.

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Abstract

New antiretroviral drugs that offer large genetic barriers to resistance, such as the recently approved inhibitors of HIV-1 protease, tipranavir and darunavir, present promising weapons to avert the failure of current therapies for HIV infection. Optimal treatment strategies with the new drugs, however, are yet to be established. A key limitation is the poor understanding of the process by which HIV surmounts large genetic barriers to resistance. Extant models of HIV dynamics are predicated on the predominance of deterministic forces underlying the emergence of resistant genomes. In contrast, stochastic forces may dominate, especially when the genetic barrier is large, and delay the emergence of resistant genomes. We develop a mathematical model of HIV dynamics under the influence of an antiretroviral drug to predict the waiting time for the emergence of genomes that carry the requisite mutations to overcome the genetic barrier of the drug. We apply our model to describe the development of resistance to tipranavir in in vitro serial passage experiments. Model predictions of the times of emergence of different mutant genomes with increasing resistance to tipranavir are in quantitative agreement with experiments, indicating that our model captures the dynamics of the development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs accurately. Further, model predictions provide insights into the influence of underlying evolutionary processes such as recombination on the development of resistance, and suggest guidelines for drug design: drugs that offer large genetic barriers to resistance with resistance sites tightly localized on the viral genome and exhibiting positive epistatic interactions maximally inhibit the emergence of resistant genomes.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: The coypright of this article belongs to Public Library Science.
Keywords: Immunodeficiency-Virus Type-1; Protease Inhibitor Tipranavir; Antiretroviral Therapy; Infected Patients; Target-Cells; Reduced Susceptibility; Viral Replication; High-Rates; Recombination; Dynamics
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Chemical Engineering
Division of Information Sciences > BioInformatics Centre
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2009 06:41
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 05:34
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/20724

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