Hegde, MS and Madras, Giridhar and Patil, KC (2009) Noble Metal Ionic Catalysts. In: Accounts Of Chemical Research, 42 (6). pp. 704-712.
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Because of growing environmental concerns and increasingly stringent regulations governing auto emissions, new more efficient exhaust catalysts are needed to reduce the amount of pollutants released from internal combustion engines. To accomplish this goal, the major pollutants in exhaust-CO, NOx, and unburned hydrocarbons-need to be fully converted to CO2, N-2, and H2O. Most exhaust catalysts contain nanocrystalline noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) dispersed on oxide supports such as Al2O3 or SiO2 promoted by CeO2. However, in conventional catalysts, only the surface atoms of the noble metal particles serve as adsorption sites, and even in 4-6 nm metal particles, only 1/4 to 1/5 of the total noble metal atoms are utilized for catalytic conversion. The complete dispersion of noble metals can be achieved only as ions within an oxide support. In this Account, we describe a novel solution to this dispersion problem: a new solution combustion method for synthesizing dispersed noble metal ionic catalysts. We have synthesized nanocrystalline, single-phase Ce1-xMxO2-delta and Ce1-x-yTiyMxO2-delta (M = Pt, Pd, Rh; x = 0,01-0.02, delta approximate to x, y = 0.15-0.25) oxides in fluorite structure, In these oxide catalysts, pt(2+), Pd2+, or Rh3+ ions are substituted only to the extent of 1-2% of Ce4+ ion. Lower-valent noble metal ion substitution in CeO2 creates oxygen vacancies. Reducing molecules (CO, H-2, NH3) are adsorbed onto electron-deficient noble metal ions, while oxidizing (02, NO) molecules are absorbed onto electron-rich oxide ion vacancy sites. The rates of CO and hydrocarbon oxidation and NOx reduction (with >80% N-2 selectivity) are 15-30 times higher in the presence of these ionic catalysts than when the same amount of noble metal loaded on an oxide support is used. Catalysts with palladium ion dispersed in CeO2 or Ce1-xTixO2 were far superior to Pt or Rh ionic catalysts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that the more expensive Pt and Rh metals are not necessary in exhaust catalysts. We have also grown these nanocrystalline ionic catalysts on ceramic cordierite and have reproduced the results we observed in powder material on the honeycomb catalytic converter. Oxygen in a CeO2 lattice is activated by the substitution of Ti ion, as well as noble metal ions. Because this substitution creates longer Ti-O and M-O bonds relative to the average Ce-O bond within the lattice, the materials facilitate high oxygen storage and release. The interaction among M-0/Mn+, Ce4+/Ce3+, and Ti4+/Ti3+ redox couples leads to the promoting action of CeO2, activation of lattice oxygen and high oxygen storage capacity, metal support interaction, and high rates of catalytic activity in exhaust catalysis.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit|
|Date Deposited:||07 Jan 2010 10:05|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:37|
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