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Embryogenesis in flowering plants: Recent approaches and prospects

Rao, K Sankara (1996) Embryogenesis in flowering plants: Recent approaches and prospects. In: Journal of biosciences, 21 (6). pp. 827-841.

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Abstract

The overall architectural pattern of the mature plant is established during embryogenesis. Very little is known about the molecular processes that underlie embryo morphogenesis. Last decade has, nevertheless, seen a burst of information on the subject. The synchronous somatic embryogenesis system of carrot is largely being used as the experimental system. Information on the molecular regulation of embryogenesis obtained with carrot somatic embryos as well as observations on sandalwood embryogenic system developed in our laboratory are summarized in this review. The basic experimental strategy of molecular analysis mostly relied on a comparison between genes and proteins being expressed in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells as well as in the different stages of embryogenesis. Events such as expression of totipotency of cells and establishment of polarity which are so critical for embryo development have been characterized using the strategy, Several genes have been identified and cloned from the carrot system, These include sequences that encode certain extracellular proteins (EPs) that influence cell proliferation and embryogenesis in specific ways and sequences of the abscisic acid (ABA) inducible late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins which are most abundant and differentially expressed mRNAs in somatic embryos. That LEAs are expressed in the somatic embryos of a tree flora also is evidenced from studies on sandalwood Several undescribed or novel sequences that are enhanced in embryos were identified. A sequence of this nature exists in sandalwood embryos was demonstrated using a Cuscuta haustorial (organ-specific) cDNA probe. Somatic embryogenesis systems have been used to assess the expression of genes isolated from non-embryogenic tissues. Particular attention has been focused on both cell cycle and histone genes.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Indian academy of sciences.
Keywords: Embryogenesis;Extracellular proteins;LEA proteins;Molecular regulation;Novel nucleotide sequences;Synchrony.
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Biochemistry
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2010 07:25
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2011 07:19
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/24659

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