Rao, TR Raghavendra and Biswas, SK (1979) Experimental investigation of die wear in small-batch hammer-forging under unlubricated conditions. In: Journal of Mechanical Working Technology, 3 (2). pp. 137-150.
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Wear of dies is a serious problem in the forging industry. The materials used for the dies are generally expensive steel alloys and the dies require costly heat treatment and surface finishing operations. Degeneration of the die profile implies rejection of forged components and necessitates resinking or replacement of the die. Measures which reduce wear of the die can therefore aid in the reduction of production costs. The work reported here is the first phase of a study of the causes of die wear in forging production where the batch size is small and the machine employed is a light hammer. This is a problem characteristic of the medium and small scale area of the forging industry where the cost of dies is a significant proportion of the total capital investment. For the same energy input and under unlubricated conditions, die wear has been found to be sensitive to forging temperature; in cold forging the yield strength of the die material is the prime factor governing the degeneration of the die profile, whilst in hot forging the wear resistance of the die material is the main factor which determines the rate of die wear. At an intermediate temperature, such as that characteristic of warm forging, the die wear is found to be less than that in both cold and hot forging. This preliminary study therefore points to the fact that the forging temperature must be taken into account in the selection of die material. Further, the forging industry must take serious note of the warm forging process, as it not only provides good surface finish, as claimed by many authors, but also has an inherent tendency to minimize die wear.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copy right of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering|
|Date Deposited:||05 Jan 2010 05:16|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:52|
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