Singh, Minni and Kathuroju, Pavan Kumar and Jampana, Nagaraju (2009) Polypyrrole based amperometric glucose biosensors. In: Sensors and Actuators B, 143 (1). pp. 430-443.
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Biosensors have gained immense acceptance in the field of medical diagnostics, besides environmental, food safety and biodefence applications due to its attributes of real-time and rapid response. This synergistic combination of biotechnology and microelectronics comprises a biological recognition element coupled with a compatible transducer device. Diabetes is a disease of major concern since the ratio of world population suffering from it is increasing at an alarming rate and therefore the need for development of accurate and stable glucose biosensors is evident. There are many commercial glucose biosensors available yet some limitations need attention. This review presents a detailed account of the polypyrrole based amperometric glucose biosensors. The polymer polypyrrole is used extensively as a matrix for immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme owing to its favourable features such as stability under ambient conditions, conductivity that allows it to be used as an electron relay, ability to be polymerized under neutral and aqueous mild conditions, and more. The simple one-step electrodeposition on the electrode surface allows easy entrapment of the enzyme. The review is structured into three categories (a) the first-stage biosensors: which report the studies from the inception of use of polypyrrole in glucose biosensors during which time the role of the polymer and the use of mediators was established. This period saw extensive work by two separate groups of Schuhmann and Koopal who contributed a great deal in understanding the electron transfer pathways in polypyrrole based glucose biosensors, (b) the second-stage biosensors: which highlight the shift of polypyrrole from a conventional matrix to composite matrices with extensive use of mediators focused at improving the selectivity of response, and (c) third-stage biosensors: the remarkable properties of nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and their outstanding ability to mediate electrontransfers have seen their indispensable use in conjugation with polypyrrole for development of glucose biosensors with improved sensitivity and stability characteristics which is accounted in the review, which thus traces the evolution of polypyrrole from a conventional matrix, to composites and thence to the form of nanotube arrays, with the objective of addressing the vital issue of diabetes management through the development of stable and reliable glucose biosensors.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Instrumentation and Applied Physics (Formally ISU)|
|Date Deposited:||31 Dec 2009 05:59|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:53|
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