Jamwal, Priyanka and Mittal, Atul K (2010) Reuse of treated sewage in Delhi city: Microbial evaluation of STPs and reuse options. In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54 (4). pp. 211-221.
1.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only
Download (1345Kb) | Request a copy
Microbiological quality of the treated wastewater is an important parameter for its reuse. The data oil the Fecal Coliform (FC) and Fecal Streptococcus (FS) at different stages of treatment in the Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) in Delhi watershed is not available, therefore in the present study microbial profiling of STPs was carried out to assess the effluent quality for present and future reuse options. This Study further evaluates the water quality profiles at different stages of treatment for 16 STPs in Delhi city. These STPs are based on conventional Activated Sludge Process (ASP), extended aeration, physical, chemical and biological treatment (BIOFORE), Trickling Filter and Oxidation Pond. The primary effluent quality produced from most of the STPs was suitable for Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). Extended Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) as a result Of low inflow to the STPS Was responsible for high turbidity, COD and BODs removal. Conventional ASP based STPs achieved 1.66 log FC and 1.06 log FS removal. STPs with extended aeration treatment process produced better quality effluent with maximum 4 log order reduction in FC and FS levels. ``Kondli'' and ``Nilothi'' STPs employing ASP, produced better quality secondary effluent as compared to other STPs based oil similar treatment process. Oxidation Pond based STPs showed better FC and FS removals, whereas good physiochemical quality was achieved during the first half of the treatment. Based upon physical, chemical and microbiological removal efficiencies, actual integrated efficiency (IEa) of each STP was determined to evaluate its Suitability for reuse for irrigation purposes. Except Mehrauli'' and ``Oxidation Pond'', effluents from all other STPs require tertiary treatment for further reuse. Possible reuse options, depending Upon the geographical location, proximity of facilities of potential users based oil the beneficial uses, and sub-soil types, etc. for the Delhi city have been investigated, which include artificial groundwater recharge, aquaculture, horticulture and industrial uses Such as floor washing, boiler feed, and cooling towers, etc. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.|
|Keywords:||Sewage Treatment; Reuse; Fecal coliforms; Activated Sludge Process; Treatment efficiency|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering|
|Date Deposited:||08 Mar 2010 12:52|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:55|
Actions (login required)