Devaraj, S and Munichandraiah, N (2008) Effect of Crystallographic Structure of MnO2 on Its Electrochemical Capacitance Properties. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry, 112 (11). pp. 4406-4417.
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MnO2 is currently under extensive investigations for its capacitance properties. MnO2 crystallizes into several crystallographic structures, namely, α, β, γ, δ, and λ structures. Because these structures differ in the way MnO6 octahedra are interlinked, they possess tunnels or interlayers with gaps of different magnitudes. Because capacitance properties are due to tercalation/deintercalation of protons or cations in MnO2, only some crystallographic structures, which possess sufficient gaps to accommodate these ions, are expected to be useful for capacitance studies. In order to examine the dependence of capacitance on crystal structure, the present study involves preparation of these various crystal phases of MnO2 in nanodimensions and to evaluate their capacitance properties. Results of α-MnO2 prepared by a microemulsion route (α-MnO2(m)) are also used for comparison. Spherical particles of about 50 nm, nanorods of 30−50 nm in diameter, or interlocked fibers of 10−20 nm in diameters are formed, which depend on the crystal structure and the method of preparation. The specific capacitance (SC) measured for MnO2 is found to depend strongly on the crystallographic structure, and it decreases in the following order: α(m) > α δ > γ > λ > β. A SC value of 297 F g-1 is obtained for α-MnO2(m), whereas it is 9 F g-1 for β-MnO2. A wide (4.6 Å) tunnel size and large surface area of α-MnO2(m) are ascribed as favorable factors for its high SC. A large interlayer separation (7 Å) also facilitates insertion of cations in δ-MnO2 resulting in a SC close to 236 F g-1. A narrow tunnel size (1.89 Å) does not allow intercalation of cations into β-MnO2. As a result, it provides a very small SC.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry|
|Date Deposited:||04 Jun 2010 06:20|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 05:56|
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