Mukunda, HS and Basani, J and Shravan, HM and Philip, B (2007) Smoldering combustion of "incense" sticks - Experiments and modeling. In: Combustion Science and Technology, 179 (6). pp. 1113-1129.
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This paper is concerned with the experimental and modeling studies on the smoldering rates of incense sticks as a function of ambient oxygen fraction in air, the flow velocity and size. The experimental results are obtained both for forward and reverse smolder conditions. The results are explained on the basis of surface combustion due to diffusion of oxygen to the surface by both free and forced convection supporting the heat transfer into the solid by conduction, into the stream by convection and the radiant heat transfer from the surface. The heat release at the surface is controlled by the convective transport of the oxidizer to the surface. To obtain the diffusion rates particularly for the reverse smolder, CFD calculations of fluid flow with along with a passive scalar are needed; these calculations have been made both for forward and reverse smolder. The interesting aspect of the CFD calculations is that while the Nusselt umber for forward smolder shows a clear root( Re-u) dependence ( Re-u = Flow Reynolds Number), the result for reverse smolder shows a peak in the variation with Reynolds number with the values lower than for forward smolder and unsteadiness in the flow beyond a certain flow rate. The results of flow behavior and Nusselt number are used in a simple model for the heat transfer at the smoldering surface to obtain the dependence of the smoldering rate on the diameter of the incense stick, the flow rate of air and the oxygen fraction. The results are presented in terms of a correlation for the non-dimensional smoldering rate with radiant flux from the surface and heat generation rate at the surface. The correlations appear reasonable for both forward and reverse smolder cases.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright belongs to Taylor & Francis|
|Keywords:||convection;gasification;incense sticks;nonporous charring fuel;smoldering combustion.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Aerospace Engineering (Formerly, Aeronautical Engineering)|
|Date Deposited:||04 May 2010 04:52|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 06:01|
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