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Evaluation of solute-solvent interactions from solvent blue-shifts of n → π* transitions of C=O, C=S, NO2 and N=N groups: hydrogen bond energies of various donor-acceptor systems

Balasubramanian, A and Rao, CNR (1962) Evaluation of solute-solvent interactions from solvent blue-shifts of n → π* transitions of C=O, C=S, NO2 and N=N groups: hydrogen bond energies of various donor-acceptor systems. In: Spectrochimica Acta, 18 (10). pp. 1337-1352.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0371-1951(62)80130-1

Abstract

Effects of non-polar, polar and proton-donating solvents on the n → π* transitions of C=O, C=S, NO2 and N=N groups have been investigated. The shifts of the absorption maxima in non-polar and polar solvents have been related to the electrostatic interactions between solute and solvent molecules, by employing the theory of McRAE. In solvents which can donate protons the solvent shifts are mainly determined by solute-solvent hydrogen bonding. Isobestic points have been found in the n → π* bonds of ethylenetrithio-carbonate in heptane-alcohol and heptane-chloroform solvent systems, indicating the existence of equilibria between the hydrogen bonded and the free species of the solute. Among the different proton-donating solvents studied water produces the largest blue-shifts. The blue-shifts in alcohols decrease in the order 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and t-butanol, the blue-shift in trifluoroethanol being nearly equal to that in water. This trend is exactly opposite to that for the self-association of alcohols. It is suggested that electron-withdrawing groups not merely decrease the extent of self-association of alcohols, but also increase the ability to donate hydrogen bonds. The approximate hydrogen-bond energies for several donor-acceptor systems have been estimated. In a series of aliphatio ketones and nitro compounds studied, the blue-shifts and consequently the hydrogen bond energies decrease with the decrease in the electron-withdrawing power of the alkyl groups. It is felt that electron-withdrawing groups render the chromophores better proton acceptors, and the alcohols better donors. A linear relationship between n → π* transition frequency and the infrared frequency of ethylenetrithiocarbonate has been found. It is concluded that stabilization of the electronic ground states of solute molecules by electrostatic and/or hydrogen-bond interactions determines the solvent shifts.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Date Deposited: 02 Jun 2010 08:14
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 06:08
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/28254

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