Vivekanandan, R and Kutty, TRN (1989) Characterization of barium titanate fine powders formed from hydrothermal crystallization. In: Powder Technology, 57 (3). pp. 181-192.
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A detailed evaluation of size, shape and microstrains of BaTiO3 crystallites produced by hydrothermal crystallization at 90 – 180 °C and 0.1 – 1.2 MPa, from amorphous TiO2· xH2O (3 < × < 8) gel and aqueous Ba(OH)2 is presented, using X-ray line-broadening and TEM studies. Whereas the concentration of Ba(OH)2 and the acceptor impurities affect the crystallite shape, the stoichimetry with respect to Ba/Ti, donor as well as acceptor impurities, and the temperature of crystallization influence the microstrains. It is shown that strains in the crystallites are related to the point defects in the lattice. Compensation of the residually present hydroxyl ions in the oxygen sublattice by cation vacancies results in strains leading to metastable presence of the cubic phase at room temperature. Studies on the diffuse phase transition behaviour of these submicron powders show that the stable tetragonal phase is produced only on annealing at high temperatures where the mobility of cations vacancies are larger. Heat-treatment reduces anisotropy and strain in undoped samples, whereas annealing is less effective in doped materials. Comparison of the crystillite size by TEM showed better agreement with the Warren—Averbach method.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier science.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre|
|Date Deposited:||26 Aug 2010 09:17|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2010 06:14|
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