Seshagiri, PB and Terasawa, E and Hearn, JP (1994) The secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone by peri-implantation embryos of the rhesus monkey: comparison with the secretion of chorionic gonadotrophin. In: Human Reproduction, 9 (7). pp. 1300-1307.Full text not available from this repository.
Chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) is the first clear embryonic signal during early pregnancy in primates. CG has close structural and functional similarities to pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) which is regulated by gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). To study the regulatory mechanism of CG secretion in primate embryos, we examined the production and timing of secretion of GnRH in peri-implantation embryos of the rhesus monkey. In-vivo fertilized/developed morulae and early blastocysts, recovered from non-superovulated, naturally-bred rhesus monkeys by non-surgical uterine flushing, were cultured in vitro to hatched, attached and post-attached blastocyst stages using a well-established culture system. We measured GnRH and CG in media samples from cultured embryos with a sensitive radioimmunoassay and bioassay, respectively. The secretion of GnRH (pg/ml; mean +/- SEM) by embryos (n = 20) commenced from low levels (0.32 +/- 0.05) during the pre-hatching blastocyst stage to 0.70 +/- 0.08 at 6-12 days and 1.30 +/- 0.23 at greater than or equal to 13 days of hatched blastocyst attachment and proliferation of trophoblast cells. GnRH concentrations in culture media obtained from embryos (n = 5) that failed to hatch and attach were mostly undetectable (less than or equal to 0.1). Samples that did not contain detectable GnRH failed to show detectable CG. Immunocytochemical studies, using a specific monoclonal anti-GnRH antibody (HU4H) as well as polyclonal antisera (LR-1), revealed that immunopositive GnRH cells were localized in pre-hatching blastocysts (n = 4), in blastocysts (n = 2) after 5-10 days of attachment and in monolayer cultures (n = 4) of well-established embryonic trophoblast cells. GnRH positive staining was seen only in cytotrophoblasts but not in syncytiotrophoblasts. Similarly, cytotrophoblast, but not syncytiotrophoblast, cells of the rhesus placenta were immunopositive. In controls, either in the absence of antibody or in the presence of antibody pre-absorbed with GnRH, these cells failed to show stain. These observations indicate, for the first time, that an immunoreactive GnRH is produced and secreted by blastocysts during the peri-attachment period and by embryo-derived cytotrophoblast cells in the rhesus monkey.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Oxford university press.|
|Date Deposited:||16 Apr 2011 12:49|
|Last Modified:||16 Apr 2011 12:49|
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