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Estimating the Threshold Surface Density of Gp120-CCR5 Complexes Necessary for HIV-1 Envelope-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion

Mulampaka, Shiva Naresh and Dixit, Narendra M (2011) Estimating the Threshold Surface Density of Gp120-CCR5 Complexes Necessary for HIV-1 Envelope-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion. In: PLos One, 6 (5).

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Abstract

Reduced expression of CCR5 on target CD4(+) cells lowers their susceptibility to infection by R5-tropic HIV-1, potentially preventing transmission of infection and delaying disease progression. Binding of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein gp120 with CCR5 is essential for the entry of R5 viruses into target cells. The threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes that enables HIV-1 entry remains poorly estimated. We constructed a mathematical model that mimics Env-mediated cell-cell fusion assays, where target CD4(+)CCR5(+) cells are exposed to effector cells expressing Env in the presence of a coreceptor antagonist and the fraction of target cells fused with effector cells is measured. Our model employs a reaction network-based approach to describe protein interactions that precede viral entry coupled with the ternary complex model to quantify the allosteric interactions of the coreceptor antagonist and predicts the fraction of target cells fused. By fitting model predictions to published data of cell-cell fusion in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc, we estimated the threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes for cell-cell fusion as similar to 20 mu m(-2). Model predictions with this threshold captured data from independent cell-cell fusion assays in the presence of vicriviroc and rapamycin, a drug that modulates CCR5 expression, as well as assays in the presence of maraviroc, another CCR5 antagonist, using sixteen different Env clones derived from transmitted or early founder viruses. Our estimate of the threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes necessary for HIV-1 entry thus appears robust and may have implications for optimizing treatment with coreceptor antagonists, understanding the non-pathogenic infection of non-human primates, and designing vaccines that suppress the availability of target CD4(+)CCR5(+) cells.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Public Library of Science.
Department/Centre: Division of Information Sciences > BioInformatics Centre
Others
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2011 05:25
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2011 05:25
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/38241

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