Srivastava, Shireesh and Modak, Jayant and Madras, Giridhar (2002) Enzymatic synthesis of flavors in supercritical carbon dioxide. In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 41 (8). 1940-1945 .
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Commercially important flavor esters of isoamyl alcohol, catalyzed by crude hog pancreas lipase (HPL), were synthesized under solvent-free conditions and in supercritical carbon dioxide. The esters synthesized were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl propionate, isoamyl butyrate, and isoamyl octanoate. Very low yields (3-4%) of isoamyl acetate were obtained, but high yields for the other three esters were obtained under both supercritical and solvent-free conditions. The yields of esters of the even-carbon acids, isoamyl acetate, butyrate, and octanoate, increased with increasing chain length, whereas the yield of isoamyl propionate was higher than that of isoamyl butyrate. The optimum temperature of the reaction was higher under supercritical conditions (45 degreesC) than under solvent-free conditions (35-40 degreesC). The effects of other parameters such as alcohol concentration, water concentration, and enzyme loading were investigated. An increase in the water concentration decreased the conversion significantly in supercritical carbon dioxide but not under solvent-free conditions. The optimum ratio of alcohol to acid was dependent on the extent of inhibition by the acid. Although providing a higher apparent yield by being run in a highly concentrated medium, the overall conversion under solvent-free conditions was lower than that under supercritical conditions for similar enzyme concentrations, indicating that the synthesis of esters in supercritical carbon dioxide might be a viable option.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Chemical Engineering|
|Date Deposited:||20 Jul 2011 04:58|
|Last Modified:||20 Jul 2011 04:58|
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