Vinayachandran, PN and Iizuka, Satoshi and Yamagata, Toshio (2002) Indian Ocean dipole mode events in an ocean general circulation model. In: Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 49 (7-8). pp. 1573-1596.
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The evolution of the dipole mode (DM) events in the Indian Ocean is examined using an ocean model that is driven by the NCEP fluxes for the period 1975-1998. The positive DM events during 1997, 1994 and 1982 and negative DM events during 1996 and 1984-1985 are captured by the model and it reproduces both the surface and subsurface features associated with these events. In its positive phase, the DM is characterized by warmer than normal SST in the western Indian Ocean and cooler than normal SST in the eastern Indian Ocean. The DM events are accompanied by easterly wind anomalies along the equatorial Indian Ocean and upwelling-favorable alongshore wind anomalies along the coast of Sumatra. The Wyrtki jets are weak during positive DM events, and the thermocline is shallower than normal in the eastern Indian Ocean and deeper in the west. This anomaly pattern reverses during negative DM events. During the positive phase of the DM easterly wind anomalies excite an upwelling equatorial Kelvin wave. This Kelvin wave reflects from the eastern boundary as an upwelling Rossby wave which propagates westward across the equatorial Indian Ocean. The anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean weaken after the Rossby wave passes. A similar process excites a downwelling Rossby wave during the negative phase. This Rossby wave is much weaker but wind forcing in the central equatorial Indian Ocean amplifies the downwelling and increases its westward phase speed. This Rossby wave initiates the deepening of the thermocline in the western Indian Ocean during the following positive phase of the DM. Rossby wave generated in the southern tropical Indian Ocean by Ekman pumping contributes to this warming. Concurrently, the temperature equation of the model shows upwelling and downwelling to be the most important mechanism during both positive events of 1994 and 1997. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences|
|Date Deposited:||19 Jul 2011 06:38|
|Last Modified:||19 Jul 2011 06:38|
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