Jacob, KT and Verman, R and Mallya, RM (2002) Nitride synthesis using ammonia and hydrazine - a thermodynamic panorama. In: Journal of Materials Science (full set), 37 (20). pp. 4465-4472.
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Because of the wide variety of projected applications of ultrapure nitrides in advanced technologies, there is interest in developing new cost-effective methods of synthesis. Explored in this study is the use of ammonia and hydrazine for the synthesis of nitrides from oxides, sulfides and chlorides. Even when the standard Gibbs energy change for the nitridation reactions involved are moderately positive, the reaction can be made to proceed by lowering the partial pressure of the product gas below its equilibrium value. Use of a metastable form of precursor in the nanometric size range is an alternative method to facilitate nitridation. Ellingham-Richardson-Jeffes diagrams are used for a panoramic presentation of the driving force for each set of reactions as a function of temperature. Oxides are the least promising precursors for nitride synthesis; sulfides offer a larger synthetic window for many useful nitrides such as BN, AlN, InN, VN, TiN, ThN and Si3N4. The standard Gibbs free energy changes for reactions involving chlorides with either ammonia or hydrazine are much more negative. Hydrazine is a more powerful nitriding agent than ammonia. The metastability of hydrazine requires that it be introduced into a reactor through a water-cooled lance. The use of volatile halides with ammonia or hydrazine offers the potential for synthesis of pure and doped nanocrystalline nitrides. Nitride thin films can also be prepared by suitable adaptations of the chloride route. (C) 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)|
|Date Deposited:||21 Jul 2011 06:40|
|Last Modified:||21 Jul 2011 06:40|
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