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Manipulation of the Hydration Levels in Minerals of Sodium Cadmium Bisulfate toward the Design of Functional Materials

Saha, Dipankar and Madras, Giridhar and Row, Tayur Guru N (2011) Manipulation of the Hydration Levels in Minerals of Sodium Cadmium Bisulfate toward the Design of Functional Materials. In: Crystal Growth & Design, 11 (7). pp. 3213-3221.

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Official URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cg2004613

Abstract

Several variants of hydrated sodium cadmium bisulfate, Na(2)Cd(2)(SO(4))(3) center dot 3H(2)O, Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) center dot 2H(2)O, and Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) center dot 4H(2)O have been synthesized, and their thermal properties followed by phase transitions have been invesigated. The formation of these phases depends on the stochiometry and the time taken for crystallization from water. Na(2)Cd(2)(SO(4))(3)center dot 3H(2)O, which crystallizes in the trigonal system, space group P3c, is grown from the aqueous solution in about four weeks. The krohnkite type mineral Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) center dot 2H(2)O and the mineral astrakhanite, also known as blodite, Na(2)Cd (SO(4))(2)center dot 4H(2)O, crystallize concomittantly in about 24 weeks. Both these minerals belong to the monoclinic system(space group P2(1)/c). Na(2)Cd(2)(SO(4))(3)center dot 3H(2)O loses water completely when heated to 250 degrees C and transforms to a dehydrated phase (cubic system, space group I (4) over bar 3d) whose structure has been established using ab initio powder diffration techniques. Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2)center dot 2H(2)O transforms to alpha-Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) (space group C2/c) on heating to 150 degrees C which is a known high ionic conductor and remains intact over prolonged periods of exposure to moisture (over six months). However, when alpha-Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) is heated to 570 degrees C followed by sudden quenching in liquid nitrogen beta-Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) (P2(1)/c) is formed. beta-Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) takes up water from the atmosphere and gets converted completely to the krohnkite type mineral in about four weeks. Further, beta-Na(2)Cd(SO(4))(2) has a conductivity behavior comparable to the a-form up to 280 degrees C, the temperature required for the transformation of the beta- to alpha-form. These experiments demonstrate the possibility of utilizing the abundantly available mineral sources as precursors to design materials with special properties.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2011 08:24
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2011 08:24
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/39611

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