Yeragani, Vikram Kumar and Rao, Radhakrishna KA (2003) Nonlinear measures of QT interval series: novel indices of cardiac repolarization lability: MEDqthr and LLEqthr. In: Psychiatry Research, 117 (2). pp. 177-190.
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In this study, we investigated nonlinear measures of chaos of QT interval time series in 28 normal control subjects, 36 patients with panic disorder and 18 patients with major depression in supine and standing postures. We obtained the minimum embedding dimension (MED) and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of instantaneous heart rate (HR) and QT interval series. MED quantifies the system's complexity and LLE predictability. There was a significantly lower MED and a significantly increased LLE of QT interval time series in patients. Most importantly, nonlinear indices of QT/HR time series, MEDqthr (MED of QT/HR) and LLEqthr (LLE of QT/HR), were highly significantly different between controls and both patient groups in either posture. Results remained the same even after adjusting for age. The increased LLE of QT interval time, series in patients with anxiety and depression is in line with our previous findings of higher QTvi (QT variability index, a log ratio of QT variability corrected for mean QT squared divided by heart rate variability corrected for mean heart rate squared) in these patients, using linear techniques. Increased LLEqthr (LLE of QT/HR) may be a more sensitive tool to study cardiac repolarization and a valuable addition to the time domain measures such as QTvi. This is especially important in light of the finding that LLEqthr correlated poorly and nonsignificantly with QTvi. These findings suggest an increase in relative cardiac sympathetic activity and a decrease in certain aspects of cardiac vagal function in patients with anxiety as well as depression. The lack of correlation between QTvi and LLEqthr suggests that this nonlinear index is a valuable addition to the linear measures. These findings may also help to explain the higher incidence of cardiovascular mortality in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.|
|Keywords:||Anxiety;Depression;Nonlinear;Chaos;Spectral;Heart rate;QT variability;Lyapunov exponent;Posture|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Electrical Sciences > Electrical Communication Engineering|
|Date Deposited:||25 Aug 2011 09:45|
|Last Modified:||25 Aug 2011 09:45|
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