Munavalli, GR and Kumar, Mohan MS (2003) Optimal scheduling of multiple chlorine sources in water distribution systems. In: Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 129 (6). pp. 493-504.
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The specified range of free chlorine residual (between minimum and maximum) in water distribution systems needs to be maintained to avoid deterioration of the microbial quality of water, control taste and/or odor problems, and hinder formation of carcino-genic disinfection by-products. Multiple water quality sources for providing chlorine input are needed to maintain the chlorine residuals within a specified range throughout the distribution system. The determination of source dosage (i.e., chlorine concentrations/chlorine mass rates) at water quality sources to satisfy the above objective under dynamic conditions is a complex process. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated to determine the chlorine dosage at the water quality sources subjected to minimum and maximum constraints on chlorine concentrations at all monitoring nodes. A genetic algorithm (GA) approach in which decision variables (chlorine dosage) are coded as binary strings is used to solve this highly nonlinear optimization problem, with nonlinearities arising due to set-point sources and non-first-order reactions. Application of the model is illustrated using three sample water distribution systems, and it indicates that the GA,is a useful tool for evaluating optimal water quality source chlorine schedules.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to American Society of Civil Engineers.|
|Keywords:||Scheduling;Water distribution;Algorithms;Chlorine;Water quality|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering|
|Date Deposited:||25 Aug 2011 09:30|
|Last Modified:||25 Aug 2011 09:30|
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