Reddy, Harikrishna K and Usharani, Dandamudi and Nixon, John F and Jemmis, Eluvathingal D (2011) Structure and Bonding in Stannadiphospholes and their Dianions SnC(2)P(2)R(2)(m) (R=H, tBu m=0,-2): A Comparative Study with C(5)H(5)(+) and C(5)H(5)(-) Analogues. In: Chemistry - A European Journal, 17 (33). pp. 9142-9152.
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The potential energy surfaces of both neutral and dianionic SnC(2)P(2)R(2) (R=H, tBu) ring systems have been explored at the B3PW91/LANL2DZ (Sn) and 6-311 + G* (other atoms) level. In the neutral isomers the global minimum is a nido structure in which a 1,2-diphosphocyclobutadiene ring (1,2-DPCB) is capped by the Sn. Interestingly, the structure established by Xray diffraction analysis, for R=tBu, is a 1,3-DPCB ring capped by Sn and it is 2.4 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the 1,2-DPCB ring isomer. This is possibly related to the kinetic stability of the 1,3-DPCB ring, which might originate from the synthetic precursor ZrCp(2)tBu(2)C(2)P(2). In the case of the dianionic isomers we observe only a 6 pi-electron aromatic structure as the global minimum, similarly to the cases of our previously reported results with other types of heterodiphospholes.([1,4,19]) The existence of large numbers of cluster-type isomers in neutral and 6 pi-planar structures in the dianions SnC(2)P(2)R(2)(2-) (R=H, tBu) is due to 3D aromaticity in neutral clusters and to 2D pi aromaticity of the dianionic rings. Relative energies of positional isomers mainly depend on: 1) the valency and coordination number of the Sn centre, 2) individual bond strengths, and 3) the steric effect of tBu groups. A comparison of neutral stannadiphospholes with other structurally related C(5)H(5)(+) analogues indicates that Sn might be a better isolobal analogue to P(+) than to BH or CH(+). The variation in global minima in these C(5)H(5)(+) analogues is due to characteristic features such as 1) the different valencies of C, B, P and Sn, 2) the electron deficiency of B, 3) weaker p pi-p pi bonding by P and Sn atoms, and 4) the tendency of electropositive elements to donate electrons to nido clusters. Unlike the C5H5+ systems, all C(5)H(5)(-) analogues have 6 pi-planar aromatic structures as global minima. The differences in the relative ordering of the positional isomers and ligating properties are significant and depend on 1) the nature of the pi orbitals involved, and 2) effective overlap of orbitals.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to John Wiley & Sons.|
|Keywords:||carbon;cyclopentadienyl ligand;density functional theory; indenyl effect;tin|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry|
|Date Deposited:||28 Sep 2011 11:31|
|Last Modified:||28 Sep 2011 11:31|
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