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The effect of particle size on performance of cathode materials of Li-ion batteries

Sinha, Nupur Nikkan and Munichandraiah, N (2009) The effect of particle size on performance of cathode materials of Li-ion batteries. In: Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 89 (4). pp. 381-392.

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Abstract

Beginning with the ‘frog-leg experiment’ by Galvani (1786), followed by the demonstrations of Volta pile by Volta (1792) and lead-acid accumulator by Plante´ (1859), several battery chemistries have been developed and realized commercially. The development of lithium-ion rechargeable battery in the early 1990s is a breakthrough in the science and technology of batteries. Owing to its high energy density and high operating voltage, the Li-ion battery has become the battery of choice for various portable applications such as note-book computers, cellular telephones, camcorders, etc. Huge efforts are underway in succeeding the development of large size batteries for electric vehicle applications. The origin of lithium-ion battery lies in the discovery that Li+-ions can reversibly be intercalated into/de-intercalated from the Van der Walls gap between graphene sheets of carbon materials at a potential close to the Li/Li+ electrode. By employing carbon as the negative electrode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the problems associated with metallic lithium in rechargeable lithium batteries have been mitigated. Complimentary investigations on intercalation compounds based on transition metals have resulted in establishing LiCoO2 as the promising cathode material. By employing carbon and LiCoO2, respectively, as the negative and positive electrodes in a non-aqueous lithium-salt electrolyte,a Li-ion cell with a voltage value of about 3.5 V has resulted.Subsequent to commercialization of Li-ion batteries, a number of research activities concerning various aspects of the battery components began in several laboratories across the globe. Regarding the positive electrode materials, research priorities have been to develop different kinds of active materials concerning various aspects such as safety, high capacity, low cost, high stability with long cycle-life, environmental compatibility,understanding relationships between crystallographic and electrochemical properties. The present review discusses the published literature on different positive electrode materials of Li-ion batteries, with a focus on the effect of particle size on electrochemical performance.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to The Indian Institute of Science (IISc).
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2012 09:29
Last Modified: 09 Feb 2012 09:29
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/43322

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