Misra, Santosh K and Kondaiah, Paturu and Bhattacharya, Santanu and Rao, CNR (2012) Graphene as a Nanocarrier for Tamoxifen Induces Apoptosis in Transformed Cancer Cell Lines of Different Origins. In: Small, 8 (1). pp. 131-143.
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A cationic amphiphile, cholest-5en-3 beta-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (PY(+)-Chol), is able to efficiently disperse exfoliated graphene (GR) in water by the physical adsorption of PY(+)-Chol on the surface of GR to form stable, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. The GRPY(+)-Chol suspension can then be used to solubilize Tamoxifen Citrate (TmC), a breast cancer drug, in water. The resulting TmCGRPY(+)-Chol is stable for a long time without any precipitation. Fluorescence emission and UV absorption spectra indicate the existence of noncovalent interactions between TmC, GR, and PY(+)-Chol in these suspensions. Electron microscopy shows the existence of segregated GR sheets and TmC ribbons in the composite suspensions. Atomic force microscopy indicates the presence of extended structures of GRPY(+)-Chol, which grows wider in the presence of TmC. The slow time-dependent release of TmC is noticed in a reconstituted cell culture medium, a property useful as a drug carrier. TmCGRPY(+)-Chol selectively enhanced the cell death (apoptosis) of the transformed cancer cells compared to normal cells. This potency is found to be true for a wide range of transformed cancer cells viz. HeLa, A549, ras oncogene-transformed NIH3T3, HepG2, MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and HEK293T compared to the normal cell HEK293 in vitro. Confocal microscopy confirmed the high efficiency of TmCGRPY(+)-Chol in delivering the drug to the cells, compared to the suspensions devoid of GR.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article belongs to John Wiley and Sons.|
|Keywords:||graphene;amphiphiles;tamoxifen citrate;apoptosis;cancer cells|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Reproduction, Development & Genetics (formed by the merger of DBGL and CRBME)
Division of Chemical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
|Date Deposited:||17 Feb 2012 10:10|
|Last Modified:||17 Feb 2012 10:10|
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