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Tolerance to the Substitution of Buried Apolar Residues by Charged Residues in the Homologous Protein Structures

Balaji, S and Aruna, S and Srinivasan, N (2003) Tolerance to the Substitution of Buried Apolar Residues by Charged Residues in the Homologous Protein Structures. In: Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics, 53 (4). pp. 783-791.

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Abstract

Occurrence and accommodation of charged amino acid residues in proteins that are structurally equivalent to buried non-polar residues in homologues have been investigated. Using a dataset of 1,852 homologous pairs of crystal structures of proteins available at 2A or better resolution, 14,024 examples of apolar residues in the structurally conserved regions replaced by charged residues in homologues have been identified. Out of 2,530 cases of buried apolar residues, 1,677 of the equivalent charged residues in homologues are exposed and the rest of the charged residues are buried. These drastic substitutions are most often observed in homologous protein pairs with low sequence identity (<30%) and in large protein domains (>300 residues). Such buried charged residues in the large proteins are often located in the interface of sub-domains or in the interface of structural repeats, Beyond 7A of residue depth of buried apolar residues, or less than 4% of solvent accessibility, almost all the substituting charged residues are buried. It is also observed that acidic sidechains have higher preference to get buried than the positively charged residues. There is a preference for buried charged residues to get accommodated in the interior by forming hydrogen bonds with another sidechain than the main chain. The sidechains interacting with a buried charged residue are most often located in the structurally conserved regions of the alignment. About 50% of the observations involving hydrogen bond between buried charged sidechain and another sidechain correspond to salt bridges. Among the buried charged residues interacting with the main chain, positively charged sidechains form hydrogen bonds commonly with main chain carbonyls while the negatively charged residues are accommodated by hydrogen bonding with the main chain amides. These carbonyls and amides are usually located in the loops that are structurally variable among homologous proteins.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: The copyright belongs to Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Keywords: buried residues;charged residues;comparative modeling;hydrophobic effect;protein structures;site directed mutagenesis
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Biophysics Unit
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2005
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2011 09:08
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/4384

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