Mahlambi, Mphilisi M and Mishra, Ajay K and Mishra, Shivani B and Krause, Rui W and Mamba, Bhekie B and Raichur, Ashok M (2012) Synthesis and characterization of carbon-covered alumina (CCA) supported TiO2 nanocatalysts with enhanced visible light photodegradation of Rhodamine B. In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14 (4).
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The anatase phase of titania (TiO2) nano-photocatalysts was prepared using a modified sol gel process and thereafter embedded on carbon-covered alumina supports. The carbon-covered alumina (CCA) supports were prepared via the adsorption of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) on the surface of the alumina. TDI was used as the carbon source for the first time for the carbon-covered alumina support system. The adsorption of TDI on alumina is irreversible; hence, the resulting organic moiety can undergo pyrolysis at high temperatures resulting in the formation of a carbon coating on the surface of the alumina. The TiO2 catalysts were impregnated on the CCA supports. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the carbon deposited on the alumina was not crystalline and also showed the successful impregnation of TiO2 on the CCA supports. In the Raman spectra, it could be deduced that the carbon was rather a conjugated olefinic or polycyclic hydrocarbons which can be considered as molecular units of a graphitic plane. The Raman analysis of the catalysed CCAs showed the presence of both the anatase titania and D and G band associated with the carbon of the CCAs. The scanning electron microscope micrographs indicated that the alumina was coated by a carbon layer and the energy dispersive X-ray spectra showed the presence of Al, O and C in the CCA samples, with the addition of Ti for the catalyst impregnated supports. The Brunauer Emmet and Teller surface area analysis showed that the incorporating of carbon on the alumina surface resulted in an increase in surface area, while the impregnation with TiO2 resulted in a further increase in surface area. However, a decrease in the pore volume and diameter was observed. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocatalysts was studied for the degradation of Rhodamine B dye. The CCA-TiO2 nanocatalysts were found to be more photocatalytically active under both visible and UV light irradiation compared to the free TIO2 nanocatalysts.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright of this article is belongs to Springer.|
|Keywords:||Carbon-covered alumina;Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate;Carbon coating;Equilibrium adsorption;TiO2;Impregnation; Olefinic; Sustainable development|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)|
|Date Deposited:||14 Aug 2012 07:22|
|Last Modified:||14 Aug 2012 07:23|
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