Laurance, William F and Useche, D. Carolina and Rendeiro, Julio and Kalka, Margareta and Bradshaw, Corey J A and Sloan, Sean P and Laurance, Susan G and Campbell, Mason and Abernethy, Kate and Alvarez, Patricia and Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor and Ashton, Peter and Benitez-Malvido, Julieta and Blom, Allard and Bobo, Kadiri S and Cannon, Charles H and Cao, Min and Carroll, Richard and Chapman, Colin and Coates, Rosamond and Cords, Marina and Danielsen, Finn and De Dijn, Bart and Dinerstein, Eric and Donnelly, Maureen A and Edwards, David and Edwards, Felicity and Farwig, Nina and Fashing, Peter and Forget, Pierre-Michel and Foster, Mercedes and Gale, George and Harris, David and Harrison, Rhett and Hart, John and Karpanty, Sarah and Kress, W. John and Krishnaswamy, Jagdish and Logsdon, Willis and Lovett, Jon and Magnusson, William and Maisels, Fiona and Marshall, Andrew R and McClearn, Deedra and Mudappa, Divya and Nielsen, Martin R. and Pearson, Richard and Pitman, Nigel and van der Ploeg, Jan and Plumptre, Andrew and Poulsen, John and Quesada, Mauricio and Rainey, Hugo and Robinson, Douglas and Roetgers, Christiane and Rovero, Francesco and Scatena, Frederick and Schulze, Christian and Sheil, Douglas and Struhsaker, Thomas and Terborgh, John and Thomas, Duncan and Timm, Robert and Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas J and Vasudevan, Karthikeyan and Wright, Joseph S and Arias-G, Juan Carlos and Arroyo, Luzmila and Ashton, Mark and Auzel, Philippe and Babaasa, Dennis and Babweteera, Fred and Baker, Patrick and Banki, Olaf and Bass, Margot and Bila-Isia, Inogwabini and Blake, Stephen and Brockelman, Warren and Brokaw, Nicholas and Bruehl, Carsten A and Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh and Chao, Jung-Tai and Chave, Jerome and Chellam, Ravi and Clark, Connie J and Clavijo, Jose and Congdon, Robert and Corlett, Richard and Dattaraja, H S and Dave, Chittaranjan and Davies, Glyn and Beisiegel, Beatriz de Mello and da Silva, Rosa de Nazarepaes and Di Fiore, Anthony and Diesmos, Arvin and Dirzo, Rodolfo and Doran-Sheehy, Diane and Eaton, Mitchell and Emmons, Louise and Estrada, Alejandro and Ewango, Corneille and Fedigan, Linda and Feer, Francois and Fruth, Barbara and Willis, Jacalyn Giacalone and Goodale, Uromi and Goodman, Steven and Guix, Juan C and Guthiga, Paul and Haber, William and Hamer, Keith and Herbinger, Ilka and Hill, Jane and Huang, Zhongliang and Sun, Fang I and Ickes, Kalan and Itoh, Akira and Ivanauskas, Natalia and Jackes, Betsy and Janovec, John and Janzen, Daniel and Jiangming, Mo and Jin, Chen and Jones, Trevor and Justiniano, Hermes and Kalko, Elisabeth and Kasangaki, Aventino and Killeen, Timothy and King, Hen-biau and Klop, Erik and Knott, Cheryl and Kone, Inza and Kudavidanage, Enoka and Ribeiro, Jose Lahoz da Silva and Lattke, John and Laval, Richard and Lawton, Robert and Leal, Miguel and Leighton, Mark and Lentino, Miguel and Leonel, Cristiane and Lindsell, Jeremy and Ling-Ling, Lee and Linsenmair, Eduard K and Losos, Elizabeth and Lugo, Ariel and Lwanga, Jeremiah and Mack, Andrew L and Martins, Marlucia and McGraw, Scott W and McNab, Roan and Montag, Luciano and Thompson, Jo Myers and Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob and Nakagawa, Michiko and Nepal, Sanjay and Norconk, Marilyn and Novotny, Vojtech and O'Donnell, Sean and Opiang, Muse and Ouboter, Paul and Parker, Kenneth and Parthasarathy, N and Pisciotta, Katia and Prawiradilaga, Dewi and Pringle, Catherine and Rajathurai, Subaraj and Reichard, Ulrich and Reinartz, Gay and Renton, Katherine and Reynolds, Glen and Reynolds, Vernon and Riley, Erin and Roedel, Mark-Oliver and Rothman, Jessica and Round, Philip and Sakai, Shoko and Sanaiotti, Tania and Savini, Tommaso and Schaab, Gertrud and Seidensticker, John and Siaka, Alhaji and Silman, Miles R and Smith, Thomas B and de Almeida, Samuel Soares and Sodhi, Navjot and Stanford, Craig and Stewart, Kristine and Stokes, Emma and Stoner, Kathryn E and Surbeck, Martin and Tobler, Mathias and Tscharntke, Teja and Turkalo, Andrea and Umapathy, Govindaswamy and van Weerd, Merlijn and Rivera, Jorge Vega and Venkataraman, Meena and Venn, Linda and Verea, Carlos and de Castilho, Carolina Volkmer and Waltert, Matthias and Wang, Benjamin and Watts, David and Weber, William and West, Paige and Whitacre, David and Whitney, Ken and Wilkie, David and Williams, Stephen and Wright, Debra D and Wright, Patricia and Xiankai, Lu and Yonzon, Pralad and Zamzani, Franky (2012) Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. In: Nature, 489 (7415). 290-U137.
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The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon(1-3). With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses(4-9). As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their biodiversity. A critical constraint in addressing this question has been that data describing a broad array of biodiversity groups have been unavailable for a sufficiently large and representative sample of reserves. Here we present a uniquely comprehensive data set on changes over the past 20 to 30 years in 31 functional groups of species and 21 potential drivers of environmental change, for 60 protected areas stratified across the world's major tropical regions. Our analysis reveals great variation in reserve `health': about half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing an erosion of biodiversity that is often alarmingly widespread taxonomically and functionally. Habitat disruption, hunting and forest-product exploitation were the strongest predictors of declining reserve health. Crucially, environmental changes immediately outside reserves seemed nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate, with changes inside reserves strongly mirroring those occurring around them. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Copyright for this article is belongs to Nature Publishing Group.|
|Department/Centre:||Division of Biological Sciences > Centre for Ecological Sciences|
|Date Deposited:||16 Nov 2012 12:18|
|Last Modified:||18 Nov 2012 10:58|
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