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A MatLAB Based Virtual Phantom for 2D Electrical Impedance Tomography (MatVP2DEIT): Studying the Medical Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction in Computer

Bera, Tushar Kanti and Maity, Parimal and Haldar, Sandip and Nagaraju, J (2014) A MatLAB Based Virtual Phantom for 2D Electrical Impedance Tomography (MatVP2DEIT): Studying the Medical Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction in Computer. In: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, 4 (2). pp. 147-167.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jmihi.2014.1247

Abstract

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a computerized medical imaging technique which reconstructs the electrical impedance images of a domain under test from the boundary voltage-current data measured by an EIT electronic instrumentation using an image reconstruction algorithm. Being a computed tomography technique, EIT injects a constant current to the patient's body through the surface electrodes surrounding the domain to be imaged (Omega) and tries to calculate the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity or resistivity of the closed conducting domain using the potentials developed at the domain boundary (partial derivative Omega). Practical phantoms are essentially required to study, test and calibrate a medical EIT system for certifying the system before applying it on patients for diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the EIT phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying and assessing the instrumentation and inverse solvers a in EIT. For proper assessment of an inverse solver of a 2D EIT system, a perfect 2D practical phantom is required. As the practical phantoms are the assemblies of the objects with 3D geometries, the developing of a practical 2D-phantom is a great challenge and therefore, the boundary data generated from the practical phantoms with 3D geometry are found inappropriate for assessing a 2D inverse solver. Furthermore, the boundary data errors contributed by the instrumentation are also difficult to separate from the errors developed by the 3D phantoms. Hence, the errorless boundary data are found essential to assess the inverse solver in 2D EIT. In this direction, a MatLAB-based Virtual Phantom for 2D EIT (MatVP2DEIT) is developed to generate accurate boundary data for assessing the 2D-EIT inverse solvers and the image reconstruction accuracy. MatVP2DEIT is a MatLAB-based computer program which simulates a phantom in computer and generates the boundary potential data as the outputs by using the combinations of different phantom parameters as the inputs to the program. Phantom diameter, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size and position), number of inhomogeneities, applied current magnitude, background resistivity, inhomogeneity resistivity all are set as the phantom variables which are provided as the input parameters to the MatVP2DEIT for simulating different phantom configurations. A constant current injection is simulated at the phantom boundary with different current injection protocols and boundary potential data are calculated. Boundary data sets are generated with different phantom configurations obtained with the different combinations of the phantom variables and the resistivity images are reconstructed using EIDORS. Boundary data of the virtual phantoms, containing inhomogeneities with complex geometries, are also generated for different current injection patterns using MatVP2DEIT and the resistivity imaging is studied. The effect of regularization method on the image reconstruction is also studied with the data generated by MatVP2DEIT. Resistivity images are evaluated by studying the resistivity parameters and contrast parameters estimated from the elemental resistivity profiles of the reconstructed phantom domain. Results show that the MatVP2DEIT generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient and accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS. The spatial resolution studies show that, the resistivity imaging conducted with the boundary data generated by MatVP2DEIT with 2048 elements, can reconstruct two circular inhomogeneities placed with a minimum distance (boundary to boundary) of 2 mm. It is also observed that, in MatVP2DEIT with 2048 elements, the boundary data generated for a phantom with a circular inhomogeneity of a diameter less than 7% of that of the phantom domain can produce resistivity images in EIDORS with a 1968 element mesh. Results also show that the MatVP2DEIT accurately generates the boundary data for neighbouring, opposite reference and trigonometric current patterns which are very suitable for resistivity reconstruction studies. MatVP2DEIT generated data are also found suitable for studying the effect of the different regularization methods on reconstruction process. Comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in MatVP2DEIT, it would be easier to study the resistivity imaging procedures as well as the inverse solver performance. Using the proposed MatVP2DEIT software with modified domains, the cross sectional anatomy of a number of body parts can be simulated in PC and the impedance image reconstruction of human anatomy can be studied.

Item Type: Journal Article
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Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to the AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS, USA
Keywords: Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT); Medical EIT; Phantom; Virtual Phantom; MatLAB Based Virtual Phantom for 2D Electrical Impedance Tomography (MatVP2DEIT); Inverse Solver; Image Reconstruction; EIDORS
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Instrumentation and Applied Physics (Formally ISU)
Date Deposited: 21 May 2014 06:49
Last Modified: 21 May 2014 06:50
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/48940

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