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COOL CORE CYCLES: COLD GAS AND AGN JET FEEDBACK IN CLUSTER CORES

Prasad, Deovrat and Sharma, Prateek and Babul, Arif (2015) COOL CORE CYCLES: COLD GAS AND AGN JET FEEDBACK IN CLUSTER CORES. In: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 811 (2).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/108

Abstract

Using high-resolution 3D and 2D (axisymmetric) hydrodynamic simulations in spherical geometry, we study the evolution of cool cluster cores heated by feedback-driven bipolar active galactic nuclei (AGNs) jets. Condensation of cold gas, and the consequent enhanced accretion, is required for AGN feedback to balance radiative cooling with reasonable efficiencies, and to match the observed cool core properties. A feedback efficiency (mechanical luminosity approximate to epsilon(M) over dot(acc)c(2); where (M) over dot(acc). is the mass accretion rate at 1 kpc) as small as 6 x 10(-5) is sufficient to reduce the cooling/accretion rate by similar to 10 compared to a pure cooling flow in clusters (with M-200 less than or similar to 7 x 10(14) M-circle dot). This value is much smaller compared to the ones considered earlier, and is consistent with the jet efficiency and the fact that only a small fraction of gas at 1 kpc is accreted onto the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The feedback efficiency in earlier works was so high that the cluster core reached equilibrium in a hot state without much precipitation, unlike what is observed in cool-core clusters. We find hysteresis cycles in all our simulations with cold mode feedback: condensation of cold gas when the ratio of the cooling-time to the free-fall time (t(cool)/t(ff)) is less than or similar to 10 leads to a sudden enhancement in the accretion rate; a large accretion rate causes strong jets and overheating of the hot intracluster medium such that t(cool)/t(ff) > 10; further condensation of cold gas is suppressed and the accretion rate falls, leading to slow cooling of the core and condensation of cold gas, restarting the cycle. Therefore, there is a spread in core properties, such as the jet power, accretion rate, for the same value of core entropy t(cool)/t(ff). A smaller number of cycles is observed for higher efficiencies and for lower mass halos because the core is overheated to a longer cooling time. The 3D simulations show the formation of a few-kpc scale, rotationally supported, massive (similar to 10(11) M-circle dot) cold gas torus. Since the torus gas is not accreted onto the SMBH, it is largely decoupled from the feedback cycle. The radially dominant cold gas (T < 5 x 10(4) K; vertical bar v(r)vertical bar >vertical bar v(phi vertical bar)) consists of fast cold gas uplifted by AGN jets and freely infalling cold gas condensing out of the core. The radially dominant cold gas extends out to 25 kpc for the fiducial run (halo mass 7 x 10(14) M-circle dot and feedback efficiency 6 x 10(-5)), with the average mass inflow rate dominating the outflow rate by a factor of approximate to 2. We compare our simulation results with recent observations.

Item Type: Journal Article
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Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the IOP PUBLISHING LTD, TEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
Keywords: galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; galaxies: halos; galaxies: jets
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Joint Astronomy Programme
Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2015 06:02
Last Modified: 24 Nov 2015 06:02
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/52819

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