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Strength reliability and in vitro degradation of three-dimensional powder printed strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds

Meininger, Susanne and Mandal, Sourav and Kumar, Alok and Groll, Juergen and Basu, Bikramjit and Gbureck, Uwe (2016) Strength reliability and in vitro degradation of three-dimensional powder printed strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds. In: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, 31 . pp. 401-411.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2015.11.050

Abstract

Strontium ions (Sr2+) are known to prevent osteoporosis and also encourage bone formation. Such twin requirements have motivated researchers to develop Sr-substituted biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. The present study demonstrates a new concept of developing Sr-substituted Mg-3(PO4)(2) - based biodegradable scaffolds. In particular, this work reports the fabrication, mechanical properties with an emphasis on strength reliability as well as in vitro degradation of highly biodegradable strontium-incorporated magnesium phosphate cements. These implantable scaffolds were fabricated using three-dimensional powder printing, followed by high temperature sintering and/or chemical conversion, a technique adaptable to develop patient-specific implants. A moderate combination of strength properties of 36.7 MPa (compression), 242 MPa (bending) and 10.7 MPa (tension) were measured. A reasonably modest Weibull modulus of up to 8.8 was recorded after uniaxial compression or diametral tensile tests on 3D printed scaffolds. A comparison among scaffolds with varying compositions or among sintered or chemically hardened scaffolds reveals that the strength reliability is not compromised in Sr-substituted scaffolds compared to baseline Mg-3(PO4)(2). The micro-computed tomography analysis reveals the presence of highly interconnected porous architecture in three-dimension with lognormal pore size distribution having median in the range of 17.74-26.29 mu m for the investigated scaffolds. The results of extensive in vitro ion release study revealed passive degradation with a reduced Mg2+ release and slow but sustained release of Sr2+ from strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds. Taken together, the present study unequivocally illustrates that the newly designed Sr-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds with good strength reliability could be used for biomedical applications requiring consistent Sr2+-release, while the scaffold degrades in physiological medium. Statement of significance The study investigates the additive manufacturing of scaffolds based on different strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate bone cements by means of three-dimensional powder printing technique (3DPP). Magnesium phosphates were chosen due to their higher biodegradability compared to calcium phosphates, which is due to both a higher solubility as well as the absence of phase changes (to low soluble hydroxyapatite) in vivo. Since strontium ions are known to promote bone formation by stimulating osteoblast growth, we aimed to establish such a highly degradable magnesium phosphate ceramic with an enhanced bioactivity for new bone ingrowth. After post-processing, mechanical strengths of up to 36.7 MPa (compression), 24.2 MPa (bending) and 10.7 MPa (tension) could be achieved. Simultaneously, the failure reliability of those bioceramic implant materials, measured by Weibull modulus calculations, were in the range of 4.3-8.8. Passive dissolution studies in vitro proved an ion release of Mg2+ and PO43- as well as Sr2+, which is fundamental for in vivo degradation and a bone growth promoting effect. In our opinion, this work broadens the range of bioceramic bone replacement materials suitable for additive manufacturing processing. The high biodegradability of MPC ceramics together with the anticipated promoting effect on osseointegration opens up the way for a patient-specific treatment with the prospect of a fast and complete healing of bone fractures. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Article
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Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the ELSEVIER SCI LTD, THE BOULEVARD, LANGFORD LANE, KIDLINGTON, OXFORD OX5 1GB, OXON, ENGLAND
Keywords: Magnesium phosphate; Scaffold; Strontium; mu-CT
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Others
Date Deposited: 02 Apr 2016 10:54
Last Modified: 02 Apr 2016 10:54
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/53481

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