# Photoswitchable cluster glycosides as tools to probe carbohydrate-protein interactions: synthesis and lectin-binding studies of azobenzene containing multivalent sugar ligands

Srinivas, Oruganti and Mitra, Nivedita and Surolia, Avadhesha and Jayaraman, Narayanaswamy (2005) Photoswitchable cluster glycosides as tools to probe carbohydrate-protein interactions: synthesis and lectin-binding studies of azobenzene containing multivalent sugar ligands. In: Glycobiology, 15 (9). pp. 861-873.

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## Abstract

Synthetic cluster glycosides have often been used to unravel mechanisms of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Although synthetic cluster glycosides are constituted on scaffolds to achieve high avidities in lectin binding, there have been no known attempts to modulate the orientations of the sugar clusters with the aid of a functional scaffold onto which the sugar units are linked. Herein, we describe synthesis, physical, and lectin-binding studies of a series of \alpha -D-mannopyranoside and \beta -D-galactopyranosyl-$(1 \rightarrow 4)$- \beta -D-glucopyranoside glycoclusters that are attached to a photoswitchable azobenzenoid core. These glycoclusters were synthesized by the amidation of amine-tethered glycopyranosides with azobenzene carbonyl chlorides. From kinetic studies, the cis forms of the azobenzene-glycopyranoside derivative were found to be more stable in aqueous solutions than in organic solvents. Molecular modeling studies were performed to estimate the relative geometries of the photoswitchable glycoclusters in the trans- and cis-isomeric forms. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was employed to assess the binding of these glycoclusters to lectins peanut agglutinin (PNA) and concanavalin A (Con A). Although binding affinities were enhanced several orders higher as the valency of the sugar was increased, a biphasic-binding profile in ITC plots was observed during few glycoclusters lectin-binding processes. The biphasic-binding profile indicates a "cooperativity" in the binding process. An important outcome of this study is that in addition to inherent clustering of the sugar units as a molecular feature, an induced clustering emanates because of the isomerization of the trans form of the azobenzene scaffold to the cis-isomeric form.

Item Type: Journal Article The Copyright belongs to Oxford University Press. azobenzene;cluster glycosides;geometrical isomerism;isothermal titration calorimetry;lectins Division of Chemical Sciences > Organic Chemistry 22 Feb 2006 19 Sep 2010 04:23 http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/5539