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Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor

Bahadur, Urvashi and Ganjam, Goutham K and Vasudevan, Nandini and Kondaiah, Paturu (2005) Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor. In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 231 (1-2). pp. 1-11.

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Abstract

Estrogen is an important steroid hormone that mediates most of its effects on regulation of gene expression by binding to intracellular receptors. The consensus estrogen response element (ERE) is a 13bp palindromic inverted repeat with a three nucleotide spacer. However, several reports suggest that many estrogen target genes are regulated by diverse elements, such as imperfect EREs and ERE half sites (ERE 1/2), which are either the proximal or the distal half of the palindrome. To gain more insight into ERE half site-mediated gene regulation, we used a region from the estrogen-regulated chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) gene promoter that contains ERE half sites. Using moxestrol, an analogue of estrogen and transient transfection of deletion and mutation containing RCP promoter/reporter constructs in chicken hepatoma (LMH2A) cells, we identified an estrogen response unit (ERU) composed of two consensus ERE 1/2 sites and one non-consensus ERE 1/2 site. Mutation of any of these sites within this ERU abolishes moxestrol response. Further, the ERU is able to confer moxestrol responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, RCP promoter is regulated by moxestrol in estrogen responsive human MCF-7 cells, but not in other cell lines such as NIH3T3 and HepG2 despite estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-$\alpha$) co transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with promoter regions encompassing the half sites and nuclear extracts from LMH2A cells show the presence of a moxestrol-induced complex that is abolished by a polyclonal anti-ER$\alpha$ antibody. Surprisingly, estrogen receptor cannot bind to these promoter elements in isolation. Thus, there appears to be a definite requirement for some other factor(s) in addition to estrogen receptor, for the generation of a suitable response of this promoter to estrogen. Our studies therefore suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation by estrogen, involving ERE half sites without direct binding of ER to the cognate elements.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: The copyright belongs to Elsevier.
Keywords: Estrogen receptor;ERE half sites;Gene regulation;Riboflavin carrier protein
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Reproduction, Development & Genetics (formed by the merger of DBGL and CRBME)
Date Deposited: 27 Feb 2006
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:24
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/5676

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