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Tyrphostins Are Inhibitors of Guanylyl and Adenylyl Cyclases

Jaleel, Mahaboobi and Shenoy, Avinash R and Visweswariah, Sandhya S (2004) Tyrphostins Are Inhibitors of Guanylyl and Adenylyl Cyclases. In: Biochemistry, 43 (25). pp. 8247-8255.

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Abstract

Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), the receptor for g uanylin, uroguanylin, and the heat-stable enterotoxin, regulates fluid balance in the intestine and extraintestinal tissues. The receptor has an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane spanning domain, and an intracellular domain that harbors a region homologous to protein kinases, followed by the C-terminal guanylyl cyclase domain. Adenine nucleotides can regulate the guanylyl cyclase activity of GC-C by binding to the intracellular kinase homology domain (KHD). In this study, we have tested the effect of several protein kinase inhibitors on GC-C activity and find that the tyrphostins, known to be tyrosine kinase inhibitors, could inhibit GC-C activity in vitro. Tyrphostin A25 (AG82) was the most potent inhibitor with an $IC_{50} of \sim15 \muM.$ The mechanism of inhibition was found to be noncompetitive with respect to both the substrate MnGTP and the metal cofactor. Interestingly, the activity of the catalytic domain of GC-C (lacking the KHD) expressed in insect cells was also inhibited by tyrphostin A25 with an $IC_{50} of \sim5 \muM.$ As with the full-length receptor, inhibition was found to be noncompetitive with respect to MnGTP. Inhibition was reversible, ruling out a covalent modification of the receptor. Structurally similar proteins such as the soluble guanylyl cyclase and the adenylyl cyclases were also inhibited by tyrphostin A25. Evaluation of a number of tyrphostins allowed us to identify the requirement of two vicinal hydroxyl groups in the tyrphostin for effective inhibition of cyclase activity. Therefore, our studies are the first to report that nucleotide cyclases are inhibited by tyrphostins and suggest that novel inhibitors based on the tyrphostin scaffold can be developed, which could aid in a greater understanding of nucleotide cyclase structure and function.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: The copyright belongs to American Chemical Society.
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Reproduction, Development & Genetics (formed by the merger of DBGL and CRBME)
Date Deposited: 03 May 2006
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:26
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/id/eprint/6550

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